Stage IV cancers have spread (metastasized) to other organs or throughout the entire body. Metastasis occurs when cancer cells move from its primary location and remotely establish themselves in another location. The steps of metastasis are malignant transformation, tumor vascularization, blood vessel penetration, and arrest and invasion. The three routes of spread are local seeding, blood borne routing (sarcomas), and lymphatic routing (carcinomas).
What is cervical cancer stage IV? Stage IV cervical cancer is advanced cancer and has spread to other body organs outside the cervix and womb. It may be divided into stage IVA or stage IVB Stage 4A is when the cancer has spread to nearby organs like the bladder or rectum (back passage). On the other hand, the cancer that has spread to organs further away, such as the lungs, it may be called stage 4B. Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments may be performed to treat stage IV cervical cancer. Some women may prefer to have treatment that will control symptoms of the cancer at this stage.
What is ovarian cancer stage IV? Ovarian cancer is a gynecologic sarcoma, which is second most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Females in the United States have a 1.4 % to 2.5 % chance of developing ovarian cancer. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) standardized the staging of gynecological cancers. It is the most frequently tool to aid in prognosis and treatment. Both surgical and pathological findings are considered in staging. The cancer is staged according to whether it is still in the ovary or spread beyond.
Stage IV is the last stage of ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer patients exhibit parenchymal liver metastases and extra-abdominal metastases. Thirteen percent of patients alive are in stage IV. The most common areas where the cancer spreads are generally the liver and lungs. A third of ovarian cancer patients have pleural effusions and most of them contain malignant cells. Splenectomy may be required when the spleen gets affected.
Widespread ovarian tumor treatments begin with surgery and may include total hysterectomy followed by chemotherapy. For tumors that remain after chemotherapy further chemotherapy treatment may be necessary. The patient takes part in making vital decisions on the treatment they want to have.